YF-23: The fighter that was defeated by excessive stealth

In an ambitious play to capture the ATF contract, Northrop introduced its cutting-edge YF-23. This prototype, which seemed to have come straight out of a science fiction epic, evoked images of heroes like Michael Biehn or Sigourney Weaver.

In the unforgiving arena of military power during the tense 1980s, the Cold War escalated toward its most explosive climax. The United States, aware of the fierce struggle with the Soviet Union, injected its genius and financial resources into an unparalleled technological arsenal, seeking to maintain its war supremacy.

Rising to the challenge, the US Air Force, with sharp strategic vision, set its sights on the horizon of the fifth generation of fighter aircraft. It was not enough to rest on the laurels of the fourth generation—those venerable fighters like the F-15 and F-16The United States, equally respecting and fearing the cunning of the Soviet aerospace masters, knew that innovation was the only route to victory.

YF-23: The fighter that was defeated by excessive stealthYF-23

Going back to the present, we know that the Soviet Union was in its death throes in the 1980s. But in those days, for the United States, the battle was one of life and death against the red colossus. Despite being exhausted, the Soviets deployed formidable aerial war machines such as the Su-27 and MiG-29, challenging American intelligence to recognize that the Soviet military-industrial pulse was still beating strongly.

In this scenario, the United States mustered the courage to create something unsurpassable that would leave the Soviets in the lurch.

 

 

The USAF, visionary and strategist, had a clear concept of future air combat. They wanted their new fleet of fighters to embody technologies adapted to that warlike future. Stealth was paramount; They had already mastered the art of stealth with the F-117 Nighthawk and the B-2 Spirit, but they longed for a fighter to take this technology to new heights.

YF-23: The fighter that was defeated by excessive stealth
YF-23

Clearing up a common confusion: the F-117, although labeled as a “fighter,” was more of an attack aircraft. Furthermore, the USAF wanted its new aerial beast to master the art of supercruise: the ability to sustain supersonic speeds without the greed of afterburning.

The supercruise was not a luxury; It was a tactical necessity. It allowed American fighters to overtake and overtake their adversaries, conserving critical fuel for complex aerial combat maneuvers – deadly dogfights.

To crystallize this vision of a fighter that fused stealth and supercruise, the USAF launched the call for the Advanced Tactical Fighter ( ATF ) contract. Northrop and Lockheed, giants of aerospace design, submitted their proposals for the ATF. This project promised prestige and a financial war chest, with an estimated production of 750 units. The battle for air dominance of the future was on.

Lockheed, with its prototype that would evolve into the F-22 Raptor, emerged victorious in this contest, marking the birth of the world’s first operational fifth-generation fighterBut Northrop‘s fallen contender, although relegated to the annals of aeronautical history, was a technological marvel in its own right, a titan that deserves its place in the pantheon of aviation.

YF-23: The fighter that was defeated by excessive stealth

In an ambitious play to capture the ATF contract, Northrop introduced its cutting-edge YF-23. This prototype, which seemed to have come straight out of a science fiction epic, evoked images of heroes like Michael Biehn or Sigourney Weaver. The YF-23 boasted a radical design: trapezoidal wings, an advanced cockpit, a duckbill-shaped nose, and a V-shaped tail. A jewel of aeronautical engineering, which, in its rarity, became an object of worship.

Of this aerial phenomenon, only two YF-23s were manufactured. The first, nicknamed Black Widow II, was powered by Pratt & Whitney engines that allowed it to supercruise at Mach 1.43. The second, the Gray Ghost, equipped with General Electric YF120 engines, even surpassed Lockheed’s F-22, reaching Mach 1.6 in supercruise.

But herein lies the irony: Lockheed‘s YF-22, with its thrust vectoring technology, outmaneuvered the YF-23, which relied on conventional methods. Thrust vectoring, which allows the pilot to modify the thrust angle, was an ace up the sleeve for the YF-22. In a strategic decision, Northrop had chosen to omit this technology on the YF-23, preferring to preserve its stealth.

This choice turned out to be prophetic. The YF-23 outperformed the YF-22 in stealth, a crucial advantage in the modern era, where air combat leans more toward stealth than maneuverability. With the evolution of air-to-air missile technology and the increasing dispute over airspace, maneuverability loses its preeminence.

In addition to stealth, the YF-23 surpassed the YF-22 in global range, a critical factor in potential conflicts with powers such as Russia or China.

However, despite its impressive capabilities, the YF-23 was discarded, not because of its performance but because of its presentation. Lockheed delighted the evaluators with spectacular demonstrations in ATF tests – operations at high angles of attack, missile launches, and maneuvers at 9G. Northrop, on the other hand, opted for a more conservative approach.

In this game of strategy and spectacle, the technical prowess of the YF-23 was overshadowed by the theatrics of Lockheed, thus sealing the fate of what could have been a legend of the sky.