What Are the Project 75 Submarines? How It Can Strengthen the Indian Navy.

The Navy is a vital part of a country’s armed forces, and submarines are crucial to the Navy. There are 16, including two nuclear subs, in the Indian Navy arsenal. There were 20 subs in the ’90s

Submarines can conceal their presence. They can go to deep depths into the sea. It can sit for a long time under the sea. Subs play a vital role, not just tactically but also strategically. Scorpene-class subs play one such part.

What is Project 75?

Project 75 is an initiative to increase the submarine strength of the Indian Navy. Magazon Dock Limited (MDL) has the contract to build these six Scorpene-class subs. The conventional diesel-electric propulsion system powers P75 Scorpene-Class submarines.

It’s a deal of 3.75 billion dollars. It involves the transfer of technology with a French company naval group known as (DCNS). The contract was signed in October 2005. Project 75 was supposed to deliver all six subs by 2019. but it got delayed due to various reasons, and the deadline was extended. But the Indian Navy is expecting to get the remaining Scorpene class submarines in a few years.

Scorpene-class Submarines.

What Are the Project 75 Submarines? How It Can Strengthen the Indian Navy.

The scorpene-class submarine is the Indian Navy’s first modern conventional series of submarines. kalvari is the first Scorpene class sub. Prime Minister Narendra Modi commissioned this in December 2017. 

The second submarine in this class is Khanderi, which was launched in January 2017. it’s under rigorous sea trials and will be commissioned shortly. The recent one is INS KARANJ, which was launched in January 2018.

The previous INS Karanj (s21) submarine served in the Indian Navy for 34 years, from 1969 to 2003, which was a crucial part of India as it played a massive role in the Pakistan war 1971. Then it was in Kalvari Class, and Now The New one is in Scorpene class.

These different classes of submarines have various features, different weights, different mottos, and different missions. The remaining three subs, Vela, Vagir, and Vagsheer, will be in the coming years. 

 Scorpene-class subs are capable of wide-range missions like anti-surface, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering, and area surveillance. This can give the tactical edge to the Indian Navy. Scorpene-class such as INS Karanj can operate in shallow water. It can track every ship going in and out of the harbor.

The Indian Navy has plans to install air-independent propulsion (AIP) in all the scorpene class subs. This Propulsion provides the endurance of 20 days to the subs. In general, it has an operating range of 6500 nautical miles and endurance of up to 60 days, but with AIP, 20 more days will be added, which is a huge advantage to them.

This AIP technology is not on any other Indian submarines as of now. The Naval Material Research Laboratory (NMRL) is developing AIP. With just 2000 tonnes, Scorpene submarines have more stealth features. These are advanced and light. They can launch heavyweight torpedoes and anti-ship missiles as well.

What is the Air Independent Propulsion System?

What Are the Project 75 Submarines? How It Can Strengthen the Indian Navy.
Image Source: www.sciencedirect.com

Scorpene-class subs are the conventional ones. They are not nuclear-powered. In a nuclear-powered submarine, there is a small nuclear reactor that works with enriched uranium. Nuclear-powered subs are powerful, bigger, and can dive for a long time under the sea.

Project 75 subs are diesel-powered; they can be a bit noisy, and they have to come on the surface from time to time. They can’t dive for months. So, With this new technology, they will be able to dive for a long time.

INS Karanj

What Are the Project 75 Submarines? How It Can Strengthen the Indian Navy.
INS Karanj (Photo: hindustantimes.com)

INS Karanj was launched in January 2018. This is the third submarine under Project 75.INS Karanj is way better and more advanced than most Chinese submarines. It can carry 18 torpedos and travel up to 1020 km underwater. This 66-meter submarine can dive up to 300 meters and cannot be deducted by anti-submarine aircraft.

Scorpene-class subs are equipped with superior stealth features, such as advanced acoustic silencing techniques. This technique suppressed submarines’ noise.

Other features include low radiated noise levels. A hydro-dynamically optimized shape helps the subs face less water resistance. It can launch precision-Guided Weapons to Cripple the enemy. The features add more advantages than other submarines.


Gradually, China is establishing its dominance in the Indian Ocean (IOR) range. India is ready to make its presence in the Indian Ocean region (IOR). Having hostile neighboring countries like China and Pakistan, India needs modern, more powerful, well-equipped submarines in the Indian Navy.

Indian Navy officials have stated that, on average, eight Chinese submarines visit the Indian Ocean region. They have been detected many times, so it’s worrisome for India. China is making its dominance in the Indian Ocean region due to various reasons, and the trade route is one of them.

If We compare both the country: China has 53 diesel-electric submarines, five nuclear attack submarines, and four nuclear ballistic missile submarines. India, on the other hand, has 14 submarines, and most of them are aging. So it’s a fact that China has the upper hand here.

The former navy chief admiral said India planned to have at least 22 submarines by 2021-23, but the project got delayed many times. And it can be delayed; furthermore, the rest of the Scorpene-class submarine may not join till 2023. With Karang Being commissioned this year, the Indian Navy is surely on the road to Strengthening its Power.