The ability to generate nuclear power is a game-changer for any military or nation. There are plenty of non-military applications for nuclear technology, like healthcare and power production.

Fewer countries have nuclear technology, which begins with electricity generation and is used by the entire world in the health field.

Every country with the technology to use nuclear energy to make electricity can’t use it for military purposes. South Korea and Japan, for instance, can build nuclear power plants to produce electricity, but they don’t or can’t use nuclear technology for military purposes.

On the other hand, some countries, like Pakistan and North Korea, don’t have the technology to use nuclear energy to make electricity, even though they can make nuclear weapons.

The reason is that these countries need nuclear weapons owing to their conflicts with their neighbors, there is no nuclear energy infrastructure in the country, and as a result of the fall of the Soviet Union, scientists with expertise in nuclear energy migrated to these nations.

Due to their poor economies and other factors, some nations only utilize nuclear energy in missile technology.

On the other hand, the precise status of Iran’s civil and military nuclear technology remains unknown due to the country’s secretive government and ongoing efforts to improve its image.

Submarines are the best example of nuclear technology at their best. Only a few countries can make submarines that run on nuclear power. It is much harder to make a nuclear-powered submarine than to make a nuclear-powered power plant.

Nuclear power plants take up a huge amount of space. When nuclear energy is so well understood that it can be used in a submarine between 80 and 300 meters long, this is the highest level of technology in the world.

US Navy Ohio Class Nuclear Propulsion Submarine
US Navy Ohio Class Nuclear Propulsion Submarine

It is challenging to produce a nuclear power source that works alongside humans and operates safely in minimal space. 

In addition, nuclear-powered submarines often carry long-range, nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. In other words, the nuclear power source in the nuclear submarine must be very reliable and trouble-free.

Few countries around the world have access to this level of advanced technology. Submarines powered by nuclear fusion are available from the world’s nuclear superpowers, including the United States, Russia, China, France, England, and India.

All submarines of the US, British and French Navy are nuclear powered. Of the many submarine classes owned by the Russian Navy, only the Kilo class has diesel-electric propulsion. All other submarines of the Russian Navy are nuclear-propelled.

Nuclear reactors power the largest submarines in the world. Due to factors like the amount of fuel oil needed for other propulsion systems and the power generation limit of its engines, there is a maximum size and weight for a submarine that can still function efficiently. To solve this problem, we can use nuclear reactors to generate a virtually infinite amount of energy.

Nuclear Submarines 
British Navy Vanguard Class Nuclear Propulsion Submarine

Submarines with nuclear reactors are self-sufficient. Power from these reactors may be generated for up to 20 years without refueling. The submarine’s power requirements are completely satisfied.

However, there are still diesel generators on the submarine for a certain amount of electricity needs and for emergencies.

Nuclear submarines can have enormous dimensions and weights, thanks to the enormous power produced by their reactor. In this way, nuclear submarines can be carried by trucks with dozens of wheels, have many long-range ballistic missiles, and host special operations units and special vehicles. 

Nuclear-powered submarines carry tens of thousands of tons of long-range ballistic missiles.

Nuclear submarines, which are complete war machines, can go on missions to circumnavigate the world for months without surfacing. 

The submarine has its own systems for producing oxygen and clean water. The duration of nuclear submarine submersion is often governed by the crew’s psychological limit and supplies’ availability.

Submarines using nuclear propulsion have substantial interior space. Comparative to other types of submarines, the living quarters for personnel are superior. 

Some nuclear submarines reportedly include gyms for crew members. Likewise, the supply storage areas are quite spacious.

Nuclear submarines can have special operations units and mini carrier vehicles used by these units. As for the weapons that nuclear submarines have, these submarines can be called monsters. 

They can carry weapons at an excellent rate compared to their volume and weight.

 Its reasonably large interior volume can carry tens of heavy torpedoes, anti-ship missiles, and even tens of nuclear-armed ballistic missiles with a range of thousands of kilometers, weighing tens of tons, too large and heavy to be deployed on any warship. Some nuclear submarines have enough weapons to wipe a continent off the map.

 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Propulsion Submarines:

Fuel for nuclear submarines can last up to twenty years. It is capable of operating submerged for months without ever touching the surface. The living quarters and amenities for personnel are superior to any other type of submarine.

They have a tremendous capability for carrying weapons. They can go far faster and dive significantly deeper than other submarines.

This underwater speed is extremely useful for evading danger and diving deeper without being recognized by hostile elements.

As the cruising speed increases, the torpedoes’ range diminishes. The submersible’s underwater speed is crucial for its survival. Submarines using nuclear propulsion are unparalleled for underwater speed.

Nuclear submarines do not have oxygen and clean water production systems or water and oxygen storage systems. This provides an advantage in both interior volumes. It also reduces reliance on base and above water.

Nuclear submarines have unrivaled weapons carrying capacity.

Nuclear Submarines 

However, because of these features, nuclear-powered submarines are quite expensive. They are very difficult to manufacture. Both production and operating costs are quite high. Production and maintenance take quite a long time.

A problem in the submarine can cause disaster in terms of personnel and the environment.

The engines of nuclear submarines can never stop because the nuclear reactor needs constant cooling. Like other submarines, when it detects an enemy threat, it cannot shut down the engine and provide silence to avoid being detected.

Nuclear-powered submarines are quite noisy. Because their bodies are so large, they are easier to spot.