In national contests, in addition to economic means and weapons of various specifications, radar also plays an important role. A radar is a type of electronic equipment that uses electromagnetic waves to detect targets.
Radar works by transmitting electromagnetic waves to the target and then receiving its echo so that the position and range of activities of the target can be located, and it plays the role of early warning and air defense.
Radar is responsible for national security and is indispensable equipment for all countries. In the world, China, the United States, and Russia occupy a dominant position in the military field. Russia’s early warning radar can reach 6,000 kilometers, and the U.S.’s early warning radar can reach 4,000 kilometers. So what is China’s level?
According to different tasks, radar can be divided into various types: warning, guidance, reconnaissance, early warning, navigation, and observation. Among them, the early warning radar can search for targets at a long distance and search for targets several kilometers away through ultra-high transmission power.
It can measure various data such as position, speed, launch point, etc., and provide accurate early warning information for relevant departments. With the continuous development of science and technology, the functions of early warning radars are also being continuously improved. Early warning radar is an important strategic piece of equipment in the future, so what is the development trend of early warning radar in China, the United States, and Russia?
2. The development of early warning radar in Russia
Russia began to develop early warning radar in the 1960s. The first generation base was put into use in 1970, and then the early warning was modified many times. The detection distance is about 2,500 kilometers to 6,000 kilometers.
In 1991, due to internal reasons, the development of early warning in Russia fell into a period of stagnation. After 2000, Russia accelerated the process of early warning research and development. Early warning radar installations began for the first time in 2005, and combat duty began in 2006.
The early warning radar currently used in Russia is the fourth generation. It is divided into five models, with a detection range of 6,000 meters, and can track and detect 500 targets simultaneously. It can provide 20- to 30 minutes of early warning time for satellites and stealth targets.
As of 2022, Russia has eight early warning radars in operation, which is also the core early warning force of Russian air defense. At the same time, Russia is still building two high-warning radar bases, which are expected to be put into use in 2024.
What is the development trend of early warning radar in the United States?
3. The development of early warning radar in the United States
The United States can be said to be the first to start developing early warning radar. The U.S. Navy began using early warning equipment in 1944 when it was installed in a radome under the belly of the aircraft. In 1957, the U.S. Navy adopted a new type of early warning equipment. At this time, the equipment was mounted on the back of the aircraft and could detect a distance of 150 kilometers.
In 1971, General Electric Company of the United States launched new early warning equipment, which can detect and analyze the signal of each unit. After 1990, the detection range of early warning equipment was more than 556 kilometers. At this time, the equipment can reduce the deviation interference caused by side lobes.
At present, the early warning system of the United States is an anti-surveillance system composed of various radars such as long-range warning, equipment systems, border interception, early warning, space tracking, and naval monitoring. This system can track not only satellites but also monitor space junk. The detection distance can reach 4,000 kilometers. It is the most complex system in the United States.
4. Development of early warning radar in China
After decades of hard work, today’s China has already led many European and American countries in the field of early warning. How did China do it? In fact, as early as the 1950s, China started researching and developing early warning radars. The development of China’s early warning radar can be divided into four stages: the construction period, the imitation period, the independent research period, and the rapid development period.
In 2003, China’s three-standard air defense radar was sold to the outside world, but this technology was only developed in European countries in 2007. Today, China’s radar has gained a place in the world.
In 2012, China’s early warning equipment underwent a comprehensive upgrade. KJ-500 is the first in the world to use digital array technology. The device can deal with external electronic interference, detect stealth targets, and perform precise tracking on targets.
In August 2016, China’s quantum early warning equipment was successfully developed. This equipment can detect targets of 100 kilometers. The sensitivity is high, and the target can be detected in the real atmospheric environment.
After the quantum early warning equipment is successfully put into service, the detection distance can reach 8,000 kilometers. Today, China is already in a leading position in this field. Over the years, through the continuous exploration and experiments of Chinese scientific and technical personnel, the early warning equipment can realize ultra-long-distance detection, sweeping and other functions.