M1A2 Abrams vs. T-90 vs. Type 99 Tanks

When it comes to modern armored warfare, three main battle tanks stand out as the most formidable and powerful machines in the world—the American M1A2 Abrams, the Russian T-90, and the Chinese Type 99. These tanks are the epitome of cutting-edge military technology designed to dominate the battlefield.


In this article, we will analyze the American M1A2 Abrams, the Russian T-90, and the Chinese Type 99 main battle tanks in-depth. We aim to provide a detailed comparison of these tanks, evaluating their strengths, weaknesses, and unique features.

Overview of American M1A2 Abrams Tank

Main Battle Tank Comparison: M1A2 Abrams vs. T-90 vs. Type 99 Tanks

The American M1A2 Abrams is a third-generation main battle tank developed by General Dynamics Land Systems. It is the backbone of the United States Army’s armored forces and has been in service since the early 1980s. The tank is named after General Creighton Abrams, a highly influential figure in the U.S. military.

The M1A2 Abrams boasts a powerful 120mm smoothbore cannon, highly advanced composite armor, and a sophisticated fire control system. Its gas turbine engine provides exceptional mobility, making it a formidable force on the battlefield.

Overview of Russian T-90 Main Battle Tank

Main Battle Tank Comparison: M1A2 Abrams vs. T-90 vs. Type 99 Tanks

The Russian T-90 is a modern third-generation main battle tank that entered service in the early 1990s. It is a direct descendant of the T-72 and incorporates several improvements and upgrades. The T-90 is known for its robust design, strong firepower, and reliable performance in various terrains.

Equipped with a 125mm smoothbore gun, the T-90 can fire a wide range of ammunition, including anti-tank missiles. Its composite and explosive reactive armor offer high levels of protection against enemy attacks.

Overview of Chinese Type 99 Main Battle Tank

Main Battle Tank Comparison: M1A2 Abrams vs. T-90 vs. Type 99 Tanks

The Chinese Type 99 is a third-generation main battle tank developed by China Northern Industries Corporation (Norinco). It is the most advanced and sophisticated tank in the People’s Liberation Army’s arsenal. The Type 99 boasts a powerful 125mm smoothbore gun and cutting-edge armor technology.

The Type 99 is designed for superior combat performance with its advanced autoloader system and modern electronics. It is intended to provide the Chinese military with a significant advantage on the battlefield.

Design and Construction

Each of these main battle tanks features a unique design and construction philosophy. The American M1A2 Abrams is renowned for its heavily sloped glacis armor and low-profile turret, which enhances its survivability and reduces its visual signature. Its crew compartment is also designed to maximize safety and survivability.

The Russian T-90, on the other hand, follows a more traditional tank design with a classic turret and angular armor. Its hull design is adapted from the T-72, providing it with a robust and battle-proven foundation.

The Chinese Type 99’s design incorporates Western and Russian tank design elements. Its turret and hull are similar to those of the T-72, while Western tank designs influence its composite armor technology. The result is a tank that combines the strengths of both worlds.


Firepower is a critical aspect of any main battle tank, and each of these tanks excels in this area. The American M1A2 Abrams is equipped with a 120mm smoothbore cannon, capable of firing a variety of ammunition, including armor-piercing rounds and anti-tank missiles.

The Russian T-90’s 125mm smoothbore gun is also highly effective and can launch anti-tank guided missiles. This feature allows the T-90 to engage targets at greater distances, enhancing its operational flexibility.

The Chinese Type 99’s 125mm smoothbore gun is comparable to the M1A2 Abrams and the T-90 guns. The Type 99 can also fire advanced ammunition types, giving it a potent punch on the battlefield.

Mobility and Speed

The ability to maneuver swiftly and effectively is crucial for a main battle tank. The M1A2 Abrams relies on a powerful gas turbine engine, providing it with excellent speed and acceleration. It can reach speeds of up to 42 mph (68 km/h) on roads, making it one of the fastest tanks in the world.

The T-90, equipped with a V-92S2 diesel engine, is also known for its impressive mobility. It has a top speed of around 37 mph (60 km/h) on roads and can easily traverse various terrains.

The Type 99 utilizes a liquid-cooled diesel engine, allowing it to reach speeds similar to those of the T-90. Its advanced hydro-pneumatic suspension system ensures a smooth ride even on challenging terrains.

Armor Protection

The survivability of a main battle tank largely depends on its armor protection. The M1A2 Abrams features a composite armor system known as “Chobham armor,” offering high levels of protection against kinetic energy penetrators and chemical energy warheads.

The T-90 utilizes a combination of composite and explosive reactive armor, providing it with formidable protection against a wide range of threats. The explosive reactive armor is particularly effective against anti-tank missiles and rocket-propelled grenades.

The Type 99 is equipped with composite armor and an active protection system, which can intercept and destroy incoming threats before they impact the tank’s hull.

Crew and Interior Features

The crew’s comfort and efficiency are vital to the tank’s performance. The M1A2 Abrams is designed with crew ergonomics in mind, featuring a spacious and well-organized interior. The tank’s advanced systems also reduce the crew’s workload, allowing them to focus on their mission.

The T-90’s interior is more compact compared to the Abrams but still provides a comfortable environment for the crew. Its autoloader system decreases the crew’s number to three, enhancing crew survivability and reducing the tank’s profile.

The Type 99 crew compartment is also designed to accommodate three crew members. Its advanced electronic systems and automation further lighten the crew’s workload during combat operations.

Electronics and Technology

Modern main battle tanks are equipped with advanced electronics and technology to improve their capabilities on the battlefield. The M1A2 Abrams features cutting-edge sensors, targeting systems, and fire control technology, enhancing its accuracy and lethality.

The T-90 boasts a sophisticated suite of electronic systems, including a ballistic computer and thermal imaging sights. These technologies allow the crew to engage targets, day or night effectively.

The Type 99 is no slouch when it comes to technology. It is equipped with a modern battlefield management system, digital fire control, and integrated laser rangefinders.

Combat Performance

The true test of any main battle tank lies in its combat performance. The M1A2 Abrams has a proven track record on the battlefield, having participated in numerous conflicts with outstanding results. Its advanced targeting systems and armor protection have allowed it to dominate adversaries in various engagements.

The T-90 has also demonstrated its combat prowess in various conflicts, showcasing its effectiveness and reliability. Its autoloader system gives it a higher rate of fire, providing a tactical advantage during intense battles.

The Type 99’s combat performance has been limited to exercises and military drills, but its advanced features and technology suggest it would be a formidable foe on the battlefield.

Real-world Deployments and Combat Experience

The M1A2 Abrams has seen extensive combat experience, being deployed in conflicts such as the Gulf War, Iraq War, and the ongoing War on Terror. Its performance in these engagements has solidified its reputation as one of the most powerful tanks globally, with an impressive combat record.

The T-90 has also seen action in various conflicts, including the Chechen Wars and the Syrian Civil War. It has demonstrated its effectiveness in different environments, showcasing its versatility as a combat vehicle.

The Type 99, being a newer addition to the battlefield, has not yet seen extensive combat experience. However, it is expected to perform well based on its advanced features and capabilities.

Pros and Cons of Each Tank

American M1A2 Abrams:


  • Powerful 120mm smoothbore cannon
  • Highly advanced composite armor
  • Exceptional mobility
  • Battle-tested in various conflicts


  • High operational and maintenance costs
  • Heavier than some other main battle tanks

Russian T-90:


  • Robust design with composite and reactive armor
  • Versatile 125mm smoothbore gun with anti-tank guided missiles
  • Reliable performance in different terrains


  • Smaller crew compartment
  • Limited operational range compared to some other tanks

Chinese Type 99:


  • Advanced 125mm smoothbore gun
  • Cutting-edge armor technology with active protection system
  • Advanced electronics and battlefield management systems


  • Limited combat experience
  • International availability and support may be restricted

American M1A2 Abrams vs Russian T-90 vs Chinese Type 99: A Comparison

When comparing these three main battle tanks, it becomes evident that each possesses unique strengths and capabilities. The M1A2 Abrams stands out with its exceptional mobility, advanced composite armor, and battle-tested performance. It is the tank of choice for the U.S. Army and has proven its worth in numerous conflicts.

The Russian T-90 excels in its firepower, featuring a versatile 125mm smoothbore gun capable of launching anti-tank guided missiles. Its composite and explosive reactive armor provide reliable protection against various threats.

The Chinese Type 99 impresses with its advanced technology and armor protection. Its active protection system and integrated electronic systems make it a formidable adversary on the battlefield.

In a head-to-head battle, each tank would have its advantages and disadvantages, making the outcome unpredictable and highly dependent on the specific circumstances.


In conclusion, the American M1A2 Abrams, Russian T-90, and Chinese Type 99 are each exceptional main battle tanks with their own unique strengths. The M1A2 Abrams is a symbol of American military power, boasting impressive firepower and mobility. The Russian T-90 is known for its robust design and versatile armament, while the Chinese Type 99 represents the pinnacle of Chinese tank technology.

While we’ve covered various aspects of these tanks, it’s essential to remember that any head-to-head confrontation would depend on multiple factors, including crew training, terrain, and strategic planning. As technology evolves, so will these tanks, ensuring that armored warfare remains a dynamic and intriguing aspect of military history.