As the Israeli military operations in the Gaza Strip continue, the need to assess the human and environmental impact becomes increasingly important. This article seeks to delve into the human and environmental costs of the ongoing conflict, providing a perspective that transcends the raw statistics and data.

Human Losses on Both Sides

It is vital to emphasize that behind every statistic is a human being, and in this conflict, human losses have been significant. On the Israeli side, the toll stands at least 1,500 civilians and security forces killed. These numbers are not just statistics but represent families torn apart, dreams shattered, and communities in mourning.

Israel-Hamas war will cause an Environmental crisis.
A building destroyed in the south of the Gaza Strip on November 4. Building destruction has never been higher. (Photo by Mahmud HAMS / AFP) | AFP 

On the Palestinian side, the numbers are even more staggering, with over 10,000 reported casualties, according to figures from the Palestinian Hamas Ministry of Health. However, it’s important to acknowledge that various sources may reduce this figure by a third or even two-thirds. These figures, whatever the exact number, remind us of the immense suffering experienced by the Palestinian people.

The Environmental Crisis in Gaza

Apart from the human tragedy, the environmental impact of this conflict cannot be understated. As the violence continues, the two million inhabitants of the Gaza Strip are trapped in a devastated environment, facing a major environmental crisis. The consequences of this crisis, including soil and water pollution, air pollution, and the presence of unexploded munitions, are deeply troubling.

The urgent need for humanitarian aid is evident, but the long-term challenges are immense. Winter approaches and establishing effective structures for treatment, food provision, and housing in the region is paramount. Pollution cleanup, debris removal, and addressing health deficiencies are all part of this complex process.

The Environmental Toll of Conflict

In times of war, the environmental consequences are often overlooked, yet they are far-reaching. Military operations, such as those we are witnessing, result in increased greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions are due to the extensive use of munitions explosives and the high fuel consumption by military units.

Fires generated by combat also contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These fires, whether from fuel depots, waste, or natural landscapes, exacerbate the environmental impact of the conflict. However, it is challenging to quantify these emissions in real-time, as the Israeli Defense Forces do not release this information.

Past Wars and Environmental Impact

To better understand the ongoing environmental crisis, we can examine the impact of previous conflicts in the Gaza Strip. In 2008-2009, extensive damage was done to the environment. Thousands of buildings and greenhouses were destroyed, leading to massive amounts of debris and rubble containing hazardous materials.

Moreover, 167 kilometers of roads were destroyed, and wastewater pollution became a critical issue. Agricultural land suffered, leading to the loss of livestock and contamination of the soil.

In 2014, another round of conflict resulted in 2.5 million tons of debris and rubble. Thousands of structures were damaged, and the interruption of waste collection led to the accumulation of waste in the streets. Trees and agriculture were further devastated.

The Impact of the 2021 Conflict

The impact of the 2021 conflict extended to Gaza’s sanitation and water distribution networks. The destruction of these networks affected approximately one million residents, leading to water shortages and contamination due to wastewater discharge. The environmental implications, including health risks and pollution, are still being felt.

Looking Ahead to 2023

As we look to the future, the virulence of Israeli strikes and ground fighting raises concerns that the environmental effects will be even more severe. The destruction of buildings and arable land has already surpassed previous conflicts, threatening biodiversity on land and at sea. Water networks, wastewater treatment, and road infrastructure have been compromised again, releasing toxic particles into the environment.


This conflict, which has endured for nearly a month, is characterized by unprecedented intensity. The environmental crisis, as a result, is severe and will likely have long-lasting repercussions.

In conclusion, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, like all conflicts, has profound human and environmental costs. It is essential to remember that behind every statistic is a human story, and the environmental damage has far-reaching implications. Addressing these challenges requires not only immediate humanitarian aid but also a long-term commitment to restoring the environment and ensuring a sustainable future for the region’s people.