How Do F-35 Approvals Affect Global Alliances?

In a recent turn of events, the United States has rejected Thailand’s proposal to acquire Lockheed Martin F-35A aircraft, citing production limitations and insufficient infrastructure on the receiving end. However, a deeper analysis reveals that the rejection may be tied to Thailand’s burgeoning relationship with China, raising questions about the evolving dynamics of global alliances.

The Global Diplomatic Litmus Test

The meticulous approach taken by the United States in approving F-35 deals underscores its concerns about the strength of global alliances. Nations like Thailand, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates find themselves in a position where securing F-35 approval becomes a litmus test for the robustness of their diplomatic ties with major global powers. Balancing high costs and stringent usage criteria, these nations are exploring alternative military systems from China and Europe to meet their strategic capability needs, potentially straining their relationships with the United States.

Safeguarding Stealth Technology

The US contingencies on F-35 approval primarily revolve around safeguarding the plane’s proprietary stealth technology. Washington demands adherence to various security countermeasures, some of which are considered far-reaching by its allies. This stringent approach is exemplified by the 2019 exclusion of Turkey from the F-35 program after it acquired a Russian S-400 ground air defense system, jeopardizing the long-term security of the F-35 program.

Diplomacy and Economic Interests

In 2020, the prospect of selling F-35s to the United Arab Emirates following the Abraham Accords showcased the delicate balance between diplomatic and economic interests. The deal, which included F-35s and MQ-9 Reaper drones, remains in limbo due to technical requirements and operational restrictions imposed by Washington.

The UAE’s frustration with these constraints, coupled with an existing agreement allowing China’s Huawei to dominate 5G infrastructure, places the nation in a challenging position—choosing between a security relationship with the United States and an economic relationship with China.

Exploring Alternatives

Faced with US restrictions, both Thailand and the United Arab Emirates are actively exploring alternative foreign systems. The US has offered the Royal Thai Air Force F-16 Block 70 and F-15EX Eagle II aircraft, which are prohibited from participating in joint exercises with China. In response, Thailand has opted for Gripen E fighters from Sweden. While the UAE has not disclosed a replacement for the F-35, it has turned to China’s Wing Loong I and II aircraft and the Turkish Bayraktar TB2 drone to mitigate the loss of the MQ-9 Reaper.

Evolving Defense Landscape

Influenced by events like the Ukraine crisis, the evolving defense landscape has prompted NATO, the EU, and East Asian states to address capability gaps rapidly. With global tensions on the rise, nations lacking offensive capabilities are increasingly seeking advanced stealth aircraft like the F-35. The United States faces the critical task of evaluating the consequences of its strict entry barriers into the F-35 program, considering whether a more flexible approach could prevent the transformation of allies into adversary technology customers.


The rejection of Thailand’s F-35 proposal is not just a singular event but part of a broader narrative unfolding on the global stage. The ramifications extend beyond individual deals as the United States navigates the delicate balance between safeguarding its technological edge and maintaining diplomatic relationships. The evolving defense landscape requires a nuanced approach, where flexibility in diplomacy may prove essential to prevent the unintended transformation of allies into adversaries in the realm of advanced military technology.